Dionysiaques: Florent Schmitt’s Incredible Composition for Concert Band (1913-14)

One of the most fascinating and forward-looking works in the concert band repertoire was penned by Florent Schmitt back in 1913/14. Dionysiaques, Op. 62 was composed for France’s elite Garde Républicaine Band, which premiered the work in 1925.

Dionysiaques is a brilliant, 11-minute tour de force that takes the listener on an incredible sound journey. Although the work is not really programmatic, its title suggests a Dionysian orgy, which is fully realized in the intensity of the music with its interesting contrasts: brooding chromaticism alternating with thrilling tutti climaxes.

The composer Pierre-Octave Ferroud, one of Schmitt’s pupils, sensed in the work “the overflowing of sap in springtime.”

Moreover, the score has an intriguing orchestration, calling for several unusual instruments such as the sarrusophone, bass saxophone, pedal clarinets and even double basses!

Like many of Schmitt’s compositions, the music is a challenge for performers, which may partially explain why it took many decades for Dionysiaques to become a staple of the concert band repertoire.

Florent Schmitt: Dionysiaques, firts page of score

Everything but the kitchen sink: Florent Schmitt’s scoring for Dionysiaques calls for the full range of wind instruments — and more.

In what may well be a “first” in recording history for a piece of classical music, the first two recordings of Dionysiaques were made by the exact same musical forces — the Garde Republicaine — within three months of one another!  The earlier of the two was recorded in November 1927 under the direction of the composer-conductor Guillaume Balay, while the second recording was made in February 1928 under the direction of Pierre Dupont.

Guillaume Balay

Guillaume Balay (1871-1943)

These early recordings of Dionysiaques are of particular historical interest because they used Schmitt’s original scoring, including a number of instruments that are no longer part of the typical wind ensemble roster (petit bugles, saxhorns, sarrusophones and the like).

The 1927/Balay recording was released on the Gramophone label, with the music spread over four sides of 78-rpm disks, whereas the 1928/Dupont interpretation — presumably a faster one — fits on three sides.

Pierre Dupont Garde Republicaine

Pierre Dupont (1888-1969)

While I have never heard the Balay recording, happily the 1928 Dupont recording has been digitized and can be heard here.

The first “modern” recording of Dionysiaques appeared in the mid-1950s, but it wasn’t until about a decade later that a second one was released — and a decade later still for yet another. All three of these recordings were on French record labels with limited international distribution.

But something interesting happened, beginning in another corner of the world. In Japan, a country with a strong school wind ensemble tradition, Dionysiaques began appearing as band competition fare. Over the past 30 years, there have been countless performances of Schmitt’s score featuring middle school, high school and college-level wind ensembles.

You can sample many of them at this website, which features CDs of many of the award-winning Japanese bands. The precision-playing by these young musicians is nothing short of amazing.

Chris Sharp

Dr. Chris Sharp

More recently, Schmitt’s score has been granted the recognition it so justly deserves here in America, helped along by the publication of revised scoring featuring updated instrumentation prepared by American band music arranger Guy Duker in 1975.  (For an in-depth analysis of the Duker adaptation, this PhD dissertation by Chris Sharp, published in 2011, is an invaluable resource.)

In 1992, Dionysiaques was named one of the “Top 10” greatest concert band compositions as part of an omnibus evaluation of wind scores of “serious artistic merit” conducted by a panel of 20 judges including such luminaries as Eugene Corporon of the Cincinnati Conservatory and Donald Hunsberger of the Eastman School of Music.

Dr. Jay W. Gilbert, Doane College

Dr. Jay W. Gilbert, Director of Instrumental Music and Chair of the Music Department at Doane College (Crete, Nebraska)

The evaluation, administered by Jay W. Gilbert of Doane College, also included the legendary Frederick Fennell as an advisor on the project.

For the record, Dionysiaques shares honors with these other important (and for the most part more famous) works in the “Top 10” listing:

  • Dahl: Sinfonietta for Band
  • Dvorak: Serenade in D Minor
  • Grainger: Lincolnshire Posy
  • Hindemith: Symphony in B-Flat
  • Holst: Hammersmith – Prelude & Scherzo
  • Husa: Music for Prague
  • Mozart: Serenade #10 for Winds
  • Stravinsky: Concerto for Piano & Wind Instruments
  • Stravinsky: Symphonies of Wind Instruments

The judging in the competition was quite rigorous, too, with nearly 200 finalists out of an original list of ~1,250 compositions being rated by the judges on ten key attributes:

  • The composition has form and reflects a proper balance between repetition and contrast.
  • It reflects shape and design, and creates the impression of conscious choice and judicious arrangements on the part of the composer.
  • It reflects craftsmanship in orchestration, including a proper balance between transparent and tutti scoring, and between solo and group colors.
  • It is sufficiently unpredictable to preclude an immediate grasp of its musical meaning.
  • The route through which the composition travels in initiating its musical tendencies is not completely direct and obvious.
  • It is consistent in its quality throughout its length and in its various sections.
  • It is consistent in its style, clearly conceived ideas, and avoids lapses into trivial or unsuitable passages.
  • It reflects ingenuity in its development.
  • It is genuine in idiom – and not pretentious.
  • It reflects a musical validity that transcends factors of historical importance or factors of pedagogical usefulness.

Today, Dionysiaques has become a common item on wind ensemble concert programs here in the United States. For example, it has been programmed by Harlan Parker and the Peabody Wind Ensemble (Baltimore, USA) in three separate seasons over the past decade.

YouTube clips of concert performances abound. You can hear several examples here, here and here.

What gives Dionysiaques its staying power as a concert band piece? It is highly inventive … always fresh and interesting … and in the end, completely thrilling. Rarely does one hear a piece of music that takes the listener through so many moods and contrasts inside of a dozen minutes.

In short, Dionysiaques has been around for a century, but it never grows old.

15 thoughts on “Dionysiaques: Florent Schmitt’s Incredible Composition for Concert Band (1913-14)

  1. Dionysiaques is very seldom played in France where concert bands are rare or of very limited talent. I am always amazed to listen to Schmitt’s outstanding craftmanship: He manages to make a small ensemble sound like a large orchestra!

      • John, there are numerous recordings of Dionysiaques available at the present time. You’ll find about a half-dozen on Amazon, plus there are others available on the Japanese label Brain (linked in the blog post to the label’s website). There are quite a few performances on YouTube as well — mostly live performances. Some of the Japanese recordings are of a somewhat truncated score, lasting about 8 minutes instead of the usual 11, so be careful about those.

  2. Pingback: Musicologist Dr. Jerry Rife talks about his Introduction to Florent Schmitt’s Music « Florent Schmitt

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  7. Actually, Francois-Julien Brun and the Musique de la Garde Républicaine recorded Dionysiaques on 33-rpm vinyl in 1961 (according to Francis Peters in a preface essay included on a Dionysiaques score).

    • Do you have further details on the Garde Republicaine recording, such as the label on which it appeared? To my knowledge, the earliest modern (post 78 rpm-era) performance of Dionysiaques was recorded in 1954 by Musique des Equipages de la Flotte de Toulon, conducted by Jean Maillot. It appeared in a 10″ recording on the Ducretet-Thomson label, coupled with the Wind Symphony of Paul Hindemith. It has been clearly superseded by many newer recordings, although it remains of historical interest.

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