Antony & Cleopatra: Florent Schmitt Takes Palace Intrigue, Scandal and Death to New Heights (1920)

“To appreciate this music fully, ready the hot tub, invite a few friends over, burn incense and uncork the wine you were saving for a special occasion.”

— International Record Review

The Death of Cleopatra (painting by Hans Makart)

Cleopatra (Painting by Hans Makart.)

One of the most intriguing pieces of music composed by Florent Schmitt during his “orientalist” period was the incidental music to André Gide’s new adaptation of William Shakespeare’s play Antony & Cleopatra.

The Gide production was no ordinary affair.  In addition to Shakespeare’s massive six-act drama, Schmitt’s music was set to dancers.  The famed dancer and dramatic actress Ida Rubinstein was cast in the role of Cleopatra, partnered with the venerable Édouard de Max as Antony.

Schmitt Gide Rubinstein Antony & Cleopatra program 1920

The opening night program from the 1920 stage production, inscribed to dancer Harry Pilcer by Ida Rubinstein and other performers and dignitaries.

Ida Rubinstein Cleopatra Gide Schmitt 1920

Ida Rubinstein as Cleopatra in the Gide/Schmitt dramatic production (Paris, 1920).

Mounted at the Paris Opéra in April, 1920, critics praised the music but noted the excessive length of the production, which lasted until the wee hours of the morning.

Giving us a flavor of what the evening was like, the Paris correspondent for the American periodical The Living Age filed this account of the Rubinstein production for the magazine:

“A series of special performances of M. André Gide’s translation of William Shakespeare’s Antony & Cleopatra, with music by Florent Schmitt, has opened at the Paris Opéra.

Harry Pilcer

A boudoir card featuring a portrait of Harry Pilcer (1883-1961), the American-born actor, dancer, choreographer and lyricist. Part of an internationally renowned duo with dance partner Gaby Deslys (who died as a result of the global influenza pandemic of 1919-20), Pilcer later opened a popular dance studio in Paris. Remaining in France during the war years, he died in Cannes in 1961.

M. Harry Pilcer scored a great success with his acrobatic dancing in the banquet scene; Mme. Ida Rubinstein was a Cleopatra whose charm lay rather in her statuesque beauty and grace than in any more profoundly personal reading of the character, but she conveyed admirably an impression of languid, Oriental capriciousness and contrasted well with the somber portrait of Antony depicted by M. De Max.

The scenes and mountings were lurid — a note of realism being struck by the presence in Cleopatra’s palace of three pure white peacocks and a young brown bear.

Antony & Cleopatra program cover 1920 Schmitt Gide Rubinstein

The program booklet for the Gide/Rubinstein production of Antony & Cleopatra (1920).

The music played an important part in the presentation of the tragedy, and contained some beautiful and striking passages of a symphonic nature. In fact, the score is quite independent in certain passages and is not merely designed as ‘incidental music’ — its real purpose being, in the words of the composer, ‘to create a state of mind, a mood and an atmosphere, and also to summarize the action.’

Antony costume design Dresa 1920

Antony costume design for Edouard de Max, created by Drésa, as presented in the program booklet

Hence [each] act is preceded by a prelude, and in this way a musical commentary is provided which gives a continuity of character to the action of the drama. The sea-fight, for example, is depicted musically during the change of scenes … the opening prelude and one of the interludes in Act II are of especial interest. M. Schmitt’s orchestration is generally highly colored, with a decided (though not exaggerated) Oriental flavor.”

Music critic Robert Brussel was also in the audience for the premiere, and his report for Musical America magazine’s July 10, 1920 issue focused primarily on Schmitt’s score:

“We cannot speak here of Mme. Rubinstein as Cleopatra — her acting is incomparable … but simply of the music of Florent Schmitt. It is certainly one of the most beautiful things in the production … 

Robert Brussel French musician

Maurice Jacques Robert Brussel (1874-1940) was a French music critic who wrote for numerous publications — most notably Revue d’art dramatique (1897-1904) and Le Figaro for 35 years. Brussel was also an impresario who played an important role in organizing concerts in Paris — most notably the premiere of Stravinsky’s Le Sacre du printemps in 1913. In 1922, he founded the organization that came to be known as Association française d’action artistique, which he headed until 1938. Brussel died in Beauvais in 1940, shortly before the Nazi invasion of France.

The opening — so grave in design, so heavy, so charged with a weighty destiny — is the peristyle which befits such a temple. The prelude [fanfare] which presages the battle is really magnificent and cannot fail to find a place on future concert programs. It is surely worthy of it, for it has none of the faults that ordinarily characterize stage music. Schmitt’s robust art does not allow for gimmicks, and he proceeds by vigorous accents rather than by subtle touches …

The instrumentation of Antony & Cleopatra is thoroughly fitting. The ideas by which he expresses the characters and decoration are of the same nature as those of Salomé. The instrumentation achieves the same … effect: Brutal rather than cutting, the music befits the scenery and suits its objectives perfectly. It illustrates, it prepares, it completes …”

The Paris correspondent for the U.K. publication The Athenaeum had a starkly different reaction to the production, writing these words in the magazine’s July 16, 1920 issue:

“The music specially composed by Florent Schmitt for Mme. Ida Rubinstein’s production of Antony & Cleopatra was the best part of this extracordinary ‘all-star’ theatrical acenture. The text, it is true, was Shakespeare’s (in André Gide’s faithful and, as it seemed to us, excellent translation), but the Shakespearian spirit was unmistakenly absent. Instead, we had a heterogeneous collection of ‘stars’ … who had consented to be cast for minor, even wordless parts; heavy, realistic scenery; a cage of white peacocks and a brown bear in Cleopatra’s palace; much changing of scenery and dresses; and immensely long entr’actes

Last but not least, there was Mme. Rubinstein, in a succession of gorgeous oriental toilettes, impersonating Cleopatra. But one felt that she would have been more at home if she had decided to turn the play into a ballet — so beautiful was her performances from a plastic point of view, and so unsatisfactorily considered dramatically. M. de Max … was a rather too broken-down and hoarse-voiced Antony, but he contrasted grimly with the glittering Cleopatra and played with his usual intensity.

The whole thing, however, lacked cohesion, and cannot be considered an artistic success. M. Schmitt’s music, on the other hand, is remarkably successful; his score contains some pages of great beauty, and he appears to have been really inspired by the subject. The plan followed was that of introducing each act by a musical prelude, with one or more interludes during the changes of scene. The opening prelude was especially striking on account of the subtlety of the orchestration and the ‘rightness’ of the mood and atmosphere created.”

Antony & Cleopatra program listing Schmitt Gide Rubinstein 1920

The title page from the program booklet.

For his part, Gide praised the music most effusively, writing to Schmitt:

“All that I had hoped for and waited for, I found in those pages … simple strength, depth and accuracy in the outlines, and that kind of expressive musicality which is so uniquely yours …”

Andre Gide, French author

French author and impresario André Gide (1869-1951), photographed in 1893. Schmitt composed the incidental music for Gide’s adaptation of Shakespeare’s play.

Shortly thereafter, the composer took the music to create two suites of three movements each, which were premiered by Camille Chevillard and the Lamoureux Concerts Orchestra in October 1920.  The two suites were published by Durand in 1922, under the same opus number (#69).

Concurrent with the publication of the score, the music received its first Dutch performance (in Amsterdam).  Additionally, portions of the second suite were presented in the first orchestral concert of the third festival of the International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM), held in Prague in 1924 — thus underscoring the high regard that the music held among Schmitt’s contemporaries.

Bartolome Perez Casas conductor

Bartolomé Pérez Casas (1873-1956)

Antony & Cleopatra was introduced to Spanish audiences in 1926, presented by the Madrid Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Bartolomé Pérez Casas.

And in North America, concert audiences in Chicago and New York had the opportunity to hear the music during the 1920s in performances led by Frederick Stock and Willem van Hoogstraten.

Willem van Hoogstraten Dutch conductor

Willem van Hoogstraten (1884-1965)

A review of the 1924 New York Philharmonic performance of three of the suites’ six numbers was published in the November 8, 1924 issue of Musical America magazine. The “Pompey’s Camp” fanfare was singled out for particular praise:

“The [movement] is scored for brass and percussion only, and examplifies the meeting of Caeser and Antony with Pompey. Mr. Schmitt has done amazing things in this. The fanfares, different in character, meet and coexist but never mingle. They begin pugnaciously and fortissimo and, as the scene proceeds, grow gentler, dying away in muted strains as the opposing factions disappear to sup on Pompey’s galley.

Frederick Stock conductor

Frederick Stock (1872-1942) was conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra for 37 years. When he led the Chicago premiere of Schmitt’s La Tragédie de Salomé, Musical America reported that the piece “proved one of the most important novelties we have had this year. It is a stupendous composition to which the orchestra gave a superlative performance.”

It is music reeking of the male principal throughout: belligerent soldiers with chips on their shoulders attending to the world’s business, [with] all things feminine — including Cleopatra — far in the background. In spite of the fact that the French language feminizes the word for ‘army,’ Mr. Schmitt has here written music as masculine as the Gallic rooster which typifies his race.”

Evidently, the “Pompay’s Camp” fanfare was an excerpt that also appealed to Frederick Stock, since he included it as a separate offering on a set of Chicago Symphony concert programs in October 1937.

SIMC concert season poster 1925

A 1925 poster announcing a week of contemporary music concerts presented by the Walther Straram Orchestra as sponsored by the Société internationale  de musique contemporaine. Note the inclusion of Florent Schmitt’s Antony & Cleopatra in the Une 4th concert — along with compositions from seven(!) other composers.

The musicologist Michel Fleury contends that the two Antony & Cleopatra Suites are highly important French musical creations of the period, writing that they “deserve to figure, along with Daphnis et Chloe and Bacchus et Ariane, among the top French symphonic music of its time.”

Antony & Cleopatra Program Book Act I 1920

A page from the program booklet for the Gide/Rubinstein production of Antony & Cleopatra (1920).

And yet … Schmitt’s Antoine et Cléopâtre remains virtually unknown.

Florent Schmitt Antoine et Cleopatre Mercier

Second recording: The Lorraine National Orchestra under the direction of Jacques Mercier.

Two recordings exist – one long out of print (with Leif Segerstam conducting the Rheinland-Pfalz State Philharmonic), and a newer, more successfully realized version with Jacques Mercier conducting the National Orchestra of Lorraine.

But having the chance to hear them in the concert hall? In France, occasionally — with Paris performances in the 1950s and 1960s led by conductors Manuel Rosenthal, Tony Aubin, Robert Blot, Jacques Michon and Rémus Tzincoca plus presentations by Jean Giardino and Reynald Giovaninetti leading the Orchestre Philharmonique de Strasbourg in 1961 and 1965, respectively.

Andre Gide Antoine et Cleopatre

The André Gide translation of Shakespeare’s play Antony & Cleopatra, dedicated to Ida Rubinstein, was published in Paris in a gold-leafed, specially bound limited edition of 500 copies.

Since the 1960s, even performances in France have become rare, although Jacques Michon led a Paris performance in 1974, Michel Plasson conducted the Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse in the Suite No. 1 in 1991, and Theodore Guschlbauer presented the fanfare movement from that suite with the Orchestre Philharmonique de Strasbourg during the same year.

But performances outside of France? Virtually impossible — until recently. In 2010, conductor JoAnn Falletta introduced the first suite to U.S. audiences by performing it with her two American orchestras, the Buffalo Philharmonic and the Virginia Symphony. (Not a completely premiere outing, because the New York Philharmonic brass players had performed the Fanfare movement from the suite at an earlier time.)

JoAnn Falletta conductor

JoAnn Falletta

As is customary prior to her symphony concerts, Maestra Falletta spoke with the audience in her own inimitable way about the music on the evening’s program. Here are excerpts from her remarks about the composer and his music:

“Florent Schmitt is the most important French composer you’ve never heard of. He was a wonderful composer – he studied with Massenet and Fauré, and he won the Prix de Rome. He was very important in the first half of the 20th Century. But we don’t know about him …

Schmitt happened to be going in a different direction than the prevalent French style at the beginning of the 20th Century. The French at that time … were trying to create a cultural identity that was as different from the Germans as possible. If you listen to Debussy or Ravel, you hear them focusing much more on color and atmosphere, like their counterparts in the art world.”

New York Philharmonic program Florent Schmitt Antoine et Cleopatre 1925

North American audiences heard both Antony & Cleopatra suites in the 1923-24 season, courtesy of Frederick Stock and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra … and then the second suite in a concert by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra in 1925 (program pictured above) … but then silence for decades thereafter.

And speaking about what attracted her to the Antoine et Cléopâtre Suite #1, Falletta remarked:

“[In this music, Schmitt gives us] panoramic shifts between the austere, pragmatic Rome that was becoming the center of the universe, and the sensual, beautiful Alexandria, the home of Cleopatra and her court. [It’s the great contrast between] sensuous and dangerous themes.”

Tanglewood Program 1964 Boston Symphony Brass

The fanfare from the first suite of Florent Schmitt’s Antony & Cleopatra was presented by the brass and percussion forces of the Boston Symphony Orchestra at Tanglewood in the summer of 1964.

The Suite No. 1 is in three parts: Antony & Cleopatra; The Camp of Pompey; and The Battle of Actium. I was able to attend one of the Buffalo Philharmonic performances of this music, and found that the conductor had changed the sequence of the music so that the second movement, a fanfare, was played first instead.

It was a master-stroke. Not only did it work extremely well musically – the quiet and reflective Antony & Cleopatra movement now sandwiched between the sinister Pompey fanfare and the savage Battle of Actium – it was also impressive visually as the full phalanx of Buffalo brass performers rose up to perform the fanfare at the start of the program, creating instant audience buzz.

BPO Concert Program 2010

North American premiere: Conductor JoAnn Falletta programmed Florent Schmitt’s “Antony & Cleopatra” with her two American orchestras — the Buffalo Philharmonic and Virginia Symphony — in the 2010-2011 season.

The French pianist Alfred Cortot (1877-1962), photographed with Florent Schmitt in the early 1950s.

I agree with the Swiss/French pianist and conductor Alfred Cortot in his declaration that Schmitt’s score to Antoine et Cléopâtre is highly effective and very rewarding musically.  It’s well-worth getting to know.

For those who wish to sample the rich musical rewards, there are several YouTube clips of the Jacques Mercier recording available for auditioning, including these:

You can also listen to the entire composition while following along with the conductor’s score, thanks to a new upload on the Bartje Bartmans YouTube channel.

Content warning: You may be seduced!


Le Square Orchestra November 17 1996 concert program Respighi Strauss Schmitt

First concert presentation in Japan: A poster announcing the November 1996 concert by Le Square Orchestra that featured the Antony & Cleopatra Suites by Florent Schmitt.

Update (11/18/13):  The two suites from Florent Schmitt’s Antony & Cleopatra have now received their first concert performance in Japan.  They were played by Le Square Orchestra, a Tokyo-based ensemble of non-professional musicians. Founded in 1996, Le Square presents two concerts per year — typically presenting very rigorous repertoire.

The November 17, 2013 concert was presented at the acoustically impressive Sumida Triphony Hall under the direction of Naotaka Tachibana. True to form, the program was a big one: In addition to Florent Schmitt’s music, the other works included on the orientalist-themed concert were the Dance of the Seven Veils from Richard Strauss’ opera Salome as well as the suite from Ottorino Respighi’s ballet Belkis, Queen of Sheba.


The 2015 NAXOS recording.

Update (3/10/15):  JoAnn Falletta and the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra performed both of the Antony & Cleopatra suites in concert in the first week of March, and also recorded the music.  The new recording will be released by NAXOS Records in November.

An upload of the Falletta recording of both suites, accompanied by the score, is available to view here, courtesy of Jean-Marie van Bronkhorst’s very worthy music channel.

Florent Schmitt Antoine et Cleopatre score inscribed JoAnn Falletta

A vintage copy of the score to Florent Schmitt’s Antoine et Cléopâtre, inscribed by conductor JoAnn Falletta following her Buffalo Philharmonic recording of the music in 2015.


Florent Schmitt Oramo Chandos

The 2018 Chandos recording.

Update (4/1/18): In further proof that Antony & Cleopatra is re-emerging as a significant repertoire item, the fourth commercial recording of both suites has now been released — this one featuring the BBC Symphony Orchestra conducted by Sakari Oramo.

In the previous year these same performers had also presented a dramatic adaptation of the music along with major portions of Shakespeare’s play to London audiences at the Barbican, joined by actors from Shakespeare’s Globe.


Fabien Gabel French conductor

Fabien Gabel

Update (6/9/18):  The Orchestre de Paris presented its first-ever performances of this music this weekend at the Philharmonie.

The program, which also featured “orientalist” compositions by d’Indy, Debussy, Ravel and Roussel, was conducted by Fabien Gabel, who has become one of Florent Schmitt’s most ardent champions.  In the past several years Maestro Gabel has programmed Schmitt’s music in the United States, Canada and Germany as well as in France.

Writing about the performance in the ConcertClassic music e-zine, critic Alain Cochard observed:

“Involving very large orchestral forces, the music is well-served by a conductor who knows how to approach an opulent score such as this – in the mysterious as well as the orgiastic – without ever giving in to any element of aural narcissism. 

This was sumptuous, colorful and intoxicating music that Fabien Gabel wanted to include on the program.  We are grateful to him!  It is time that … one of the very great French masters of the twentieth century is finally recognized for his value.  It’s also high-time that French music discovery programs of this kind become more typical and spontaneous – in short, having a little less masochistic disdain for the treasures of our symphonic repertoire.”

Orchestre de Paris June 9-10 2018 program

The Orchestre de Paris’ Rêves d’Orient program, presented at the Philharmonie de Paris on June 9 and 10, 2018. Fabien Gabel conducted.

11 thoughts on “Antony & Cleopatra: Florent Schmitt Takes Palace Intrigue, Scandal and Death to New Heights (1920)

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    • You’ll find YouTube links to several of the movements at the bottom of the article (just above the Update paragraph). And the other movements are also uploaded on YouTube, which you’ll see in the RH column when you open the two links on the blog article.

      You may not be able to view the clips if you are located outside the United States; if that’s the case, it is a YouTube restriction that we cannot override. I hope this works for you.

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