It’s been several decades since Florent Schmitt’s La Tragédie de Salomé was last presented as a ballet, even as it has been performed in the concert hall quite regularly. So it is nice to note that the Mariinsky Ballet of St. Petersburg, Russia is including Salomé as part of its 13th Annual Ballet Festival.
The Mariinsky is also taking the production on tour.
This video clip, courtesy of the Mariinsky Ballet Channel on YouTube, highlights some of the new choreography that has been developed by Emil Faski, danced in rehearsal by Mariinsky company members Victoria Brilyova and Andrei Yermakov.
To my knowledge, the Mariinsky production is the first staging of the ballet since the 1994-95 season, when Salomé was presented in Germany as part of an evening of three ballets (also including Stravinsky’s Petrouchka and Ravel’s Tombeau de Couperin), with choreography by Anthony Taylor.
That German production, mounted at the Theater des Stadt Koblenz, premiered on October 28, 1994 and ran for 16 performances, with the orchestral forces conducted by Marioara Trifan and Christian Letschert-Larsson.
Interestingly, from my research, I believe the last time The Tragedy of Salome was mounted as a ballet production in the city of its origin was back in 1954, mounted by the Paris Opéra. That was the seventh time Parisians had had the opportunity to see the ballet, with earlier productions mounted in 1944, 1928, 1919, 1913, 1912 and 1907.
The first production in 1907 was of Schmitt’s original version of the music, danced by Loïe Fuller who, like Isadora Duncan, was famous for her scarves and lighting effects. Schmitt had composed the nearly one-hour score in under three months, drawing quick inspiration from a dramatic scenario conjured up by poet and theater director Robert d’Humières.
The 1907 Salomé was mounted as a “mimed drama” at the Théâtre des Arts in Paris, a smallish performance space that was unable to accommodate an orchestra of more than 20 musicians.
Despite this limitation, Schmitt managed to create a score that is highly effective, even as he must have chafed at the inability to employ his masterful orchestration skills.
Indeed, Schmitt was forced to confine himself to using merely a quintet of strings, a flute, an oboe/English horn, a clarinet, a bassoon, a trumpet, two horns and two trombones, along with harp and limited percussion.
“In spite of the small number of players, [Florent Schmitt] was able to draw from his orchestra astonishing effects … His orchestral commentary, tense and concentrated, quivers with inner life – vibrant in its passion. With an astonishing firmness of style and an incontestable rhythmic force, the composer has translated both the subtleties and brutalities inherent in the poetic text.”
You can sample how effective Schmitt’s scoring sounds in this excerpt from a 1991 Marco Polo recording made of the 1907 original version, with Patrick Davin conducting members of the Rheinland-Pfalz State Philharmonic, courtesy of YouTube.
The 1907 production of La Tragédie de Salomé turned out to be one of the principal artistic events of the Paris season, receiving more than 50 performances (conducted by the then-very young Désiré-Emile Inghelbrecht).
The critics were glowing in their praise of the choreography and the music. The comments of Henri Gauthier-Villars were representative, who spoke of a “sumptuous symphony that shimmers around” the principal dancer.
But understandably, Schmitt wanted to find a way to give his music fresh light – and added “oomph” – when he prepared another version of the score three years later. Schmitt’s new version expanded the orchestra to full symphonic forces even as it reduced the number of tableaux from six dances to three.
The composition that resulted, now closer to 30 minutes in length, has been the one used to revive the ballet in subsequent years.
La Tragédie de Salomé was included in a memorable evening of ballet on April 22, 1912, sharing billing alongside La Péri by Paul Dukas, Istar by Vincent d’Indy and Adélaïde, ou le langage des fleurs (better known to music-lovers as Valses Nobles et Sentimentales) by Maurice Ravel.
This production of Salomé featured Natasha (Natalia) Trouhanova in the starring role. Maxime Dethomas was the set designer, while the composer himself directed the Lamoureux Orchestra. (Each of the other three ballets was conducted by their respective composers as well.) The gala program was repeated on April 23, 25 and 27.
Hard on the heels of the 1912 presentation of La Tragédie de Salomé was a Ballet Russes production mounted by Serge Diaghilev the following year, featuring choreography by Boris Georgevich Romanof and the prima ballerina Tamara Karsavina cast in the starring role, with Pierre Monteux directing the orchestra forces.
That production was the topic of a feature spread in Comœdia Illustré, the leading theatre magazine in Paris at the time, which also presented photos of a bejeweled Karsavina along with colorfully costumed Nubian guards. The curtain and costume designs were created by Serge Sudeikine — the first time Diaghilev had turned to a Russian artist outside the Mir Iskusstva (World of Art) circle (Bakst, Benois, Golovin, Roerich) — and the choreography was prepared by Boris Romanov, his only work for Diaghilev. Leon Bakst was responsible for the sumptuous set design.
Considering the impressive roster of ballerina stars who took up the Salome role – along with the dramatic potential the score to Salomé offers – its disappearance from the Parisian ballet repertoire after 1954 seems somewhat odd.
So it is doubly welcome to see this new Mariinsky production unfold. And with the Salomé being taken on tour this year, perhaps it will lead to more widespread interest and revival of a work that deserves to be seen on the stage as much as it’s heard in the concert hall.
Update: The Mariinsky Ballet’s production of La Tragédie de Salomé premiered in Russia in 2013, followed by stagings outside the country.
It was taken to Italy in 2013 (to Trieste, where it was performed at the Teatro Verdi), where it received glowing reviews. The Italian arts critic Alberto Godas noted the “original and powerful choreography of Emil Faski,” and also reported on the production and staging “creating a magical atmosphere.”
In addition, a video has been uploaded recently on the Mariinsky’s YouTube channel featuring choreographer Emil Faski talking about his realization of the ballet, accompanied by a presentation of stage production excerpts.